Multi-factor authentication (MFA)
Requires the simultaneous use of two or more pieces of multiple pieces of identifying information to verify your identity.
It means that if a hacker is able to grab your login credentials they are prevented from accessing your account.
Authentication categories include:
Something you know
It is your passwords or pre-established answers to questions. Use 1Password to create and store your strong and unique passwords as well as answers to your security questions. I recommend that you never use real information to answer those questions and never use the same answers to those questions for different sites.
Something you have
Often these are physical tokens may be key fob, USB drive or SmartCard. This token is used along with your password to gain access to your account. There are software-based tokens that are quite popular as they generate a single use login PIN or personal identification number. Some are SMS messages, emails or phone messages to retrieve the PINs. Because they can only be used once even if they get intercepted during the transmission they cannot be used to access your accounts.
Something you are
There are a number of authentication methods that can be used. These often are biometric identification and include retinal or iris scans, facial recognition, voice recognition, signatures or keystroke movements or fingerprints.